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MLA Style: 7th edition: In-Text Citations

In-Text Citations

 

If the author’s name is included in the text, then add the page numbers for the source in parenthesis at the end of the sentence or quotation.  (MLA Handbook 216-217)

            Example:  Cross writes that Austen’s writing has both the “humor and technique of a Shakespearean  comedy” (28).  

If the author’s name is not included in the text, add the author’s last name followed by the page number in parenthesis at the end of the sentence or quotation.  (MLA Handbook 216-217)  

Example:

 It has been stated that the humor and technique of Austen’s writing is similar to that of a Shakespearean comedy (Cross 28).      

If the source does not have an author or has more than one author, follow these guidelines:

 

 

Quotations

You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations, or common knowledge, but if in doubt, cite the source!

If a quotation is longer than 4 lines, separate it from the rest of the text by beginning a new line and indenting one inch from the left margin.  Double-space the quotation without adding quotation marks (MLA Handbook 94).

Example:

Early in the story, the young boys fill their pockets with stones, an ominous foreshadowing of the attack at the end of the story:

            Although the villagers had forgotten the ritual and lost the original black box, they still remembered

            to use stones.  The pile of stones the boys had made earlier was ready; there were stones on the ground

            with the blowing scraps of paper that had come out of the box.  Mrs. Delacroix selected a stone so large

            she had to pick it up with both hands …Tessie Hutchinson was in the center of a cleared space by now,

            and she held her hands out desperately as the villagers moved in on her. (Jackson 205)

                      

Indirect Source

 (Hodges’ Harbrace Handbook 584)                                                                                                             

 If your source has quoted information from another work and you cannot obtain the original source, use the following form:

The critic Susan Hardy Aikens has argued on behalf of what she calls “canonical multiplicity” (qtd. in Mayers 677).

Abbreviations used with electronic sources:

Use n.p. to indicate that neither a publisher nor a sponsor name has been provided. Use n.d. when the web page does not provide a publication date.

When an entry requires that you provide a page but no pages are provided in the source (as in the case of an online-only scholarly journal or a work that appears in an online-only anthology), use the abbreviation n. pag.

(information from: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/08/)