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The Cell: An Image Library
Books on Cells
The Cell: a Very Short Introduction by
All living things on Earth are composed of cells. A cell is the simplest unit of a self-contained living organism, and the vast majority of life on Earth consists of single-celled microbes, mostly bacteria. These consist of a simple "prokaryotic" cell, with no nucleus. The bodies of morecomplex plants and animals consist of billions of "eukaryotic" cells, of varying kinds, adapted to fill different roles - red blood cells, muscle cells, branched neurons. Each cell is an astonishingly complex chemical factory, the activities of which we have only begun to unravel in the past fiftyyears or so through modern techniques of microscopy, biochemistry, and molecular biology.In this Very Short Introduction, Terrence Allen and Graham Cowling describe the nature of cells - their basic structure, their varying forms, their division, their differentiation from initially highly flexible stem cells, their signalling, and programmed death. Cells are the basic constituent oflife, and understanding cells and how they work is central to all biology and medicine.
Call Number: QH582.5 .A45 2011 Deerwood
Publication Date: 2011-11-01
The Cell by
Studying the cell helps us improve our understanding of the living world, plant and animal physiology, genetics, and biochemistry. This wealth of information has revolutionized the biological and medical sciences, leading to a dramatic reduction in mortalities due to infectious diseases and medical disorders. The war on cancer—launched almost 40 years ago—is finally approaching a stage where all cancers will be curable. Improved treatment and prognosis is now possible for many other disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cystic fibrosis. Improved knowledge of the cell has made it possible for researchers to isolate and culture stem cells, which may be used to treat spinal cord trauma and degenerative neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The Cell, Revised Edition contains new and revised material throughout, accompanied by many photographs and line drawings, all of which are now in color. Updated chapters in this timely resource now cover the recent controversy over the teaching of creationism in public schools, life on other planets, bacterial populations, and the potential threat of certain pathogenic species, as well as a more detailed discussion of eukaryote structure and function. New chapters have been added on the many cells that make up the human body as well as the crucial role that photosynthesis plays during the formation of the Earth's biosphere.
Call Number: QH582.4 .P36 2010 Kent
Publication Date: 2010-09-01
The Cell by
Understanding the cell is the key to grasping the significant potential and technological developments of the new biology. Presented from the point of view of the cell's motivations, The Cell presents the origins and mechanisms of this element of life and the development of scientific knowledge surrounding it.
Call Number: QH582.4 .P36 2004 Downtown
Publication Date: 2004-10-01
Open Educational Resource
All living things are made of cells. Cells are microscopic; first discovered in 1665. Cells are surrounded by a membrane.
1) Prokaryotic cells - in bacteria. They have a simple structure (no nucleus or organelles). They are small (1 - 5 micrometers across). Usually have an external cell wall.
2) Eukaryotic cells - in plants, fungi, animals. The DNA is organized into chromosomes in the nucleus. They have specialized organelles and are larger (10 - 50 micrometers across). Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
1) Light microscopes - focus light on the specimen. Advantages: living cells, color, portable, cheap. Disadvantage : magnification only up to 1000.
2) Electron microscopes - focus a beam of electrons on the specimen. Advantage : high magnification (up to 1 million ) Disadvantages : dead cells, black/white, not portable, expensive.
Why are cells so small? They need to keep a large surface area compared to volume. Cells consist of : membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm.
Nucleus: roughly 5 micrometers across. It contains genes (DNA) arranged in chromosomes, and is surrounded by nuclear membrane which has pores. The nucleolus (inside the nucleus) produces ribosomes.
Cytoplasm : contains many organelles
1). Ribosomes : are made of RNA and protein. Ribosomes use RNA to produce proteins.
2). ER (Endoplasmic reticulum)
- Rough ER : a series of membranes with ribosomes. It produces new membranes.
3). Golgi body It is roughly 3 micrometers across. It packages and sends off chemicals. The cis face receives chemicals. The trans face dispatches chemicals to a certain area.
- Smooth ER : membranes without ribosomes. It produces lipids. It also detoxifies chemicals (in the liver). It also stores calcium (in the muscles).
4). Lysosomes : are produced by the Golgi body. They contain digestive enzymes to digest food brought in by phagocytosis or old organelles.
Apoptosis - programmed cell death ( cell suicide ): for example the tail of a tadpole is reabsorbed when it turns into a frog.
Tay Sachs disease is a fatal genetic disease (the lysosomes do not work).
5). Vacuoles : Animals : food vacuoles hold food brought by phagocytosis (only in single celled animals).
Plants : storage vacuoles hold water, minerals, poison (to deter herbivores).
6). Peroxisomes : contain enzymes that produce hydrogen peroxide. They are used in breaking down fats.
7). Mitochondria They are roughly 3 micrometers across.
They have a smooth outer membrane, and folded inner membrane. Mitochondria contain DNA, RNA, ribosomes, proteins.They may have evolved from early bacteria. Mitochondria are inherited only from your mother. Link. Enzymes on inner membrane produce ATP ( energy). Mitochondria
8). Chloroplasts : only found in plants.
They are roughly 3 micrometers across. They have two smooth membranes. Chloroplasts contain DNA, RNA, ribosomes, proteins. Stacks of inner membrane called grana contain chlorophyll. The liquid stroma surrounds the grana. Chloroplasts produce carbohydrate by photosynthesis.
9). Cytoskeleton : controls the shape, and movement, of the cell. It consists of microtubules and microfilaments.
Microtubules : are 25 nanometers diameter. They are made of tubulin ( protein ) and they support the cell.
In animals they can form cilia and flagella ( 9 + 2 arrangement ).
Microfilaments : 7 nanometers diameter. They are made of actin (protein). In animals they form muscles. In plants they cause cyclosis (cytoplasmic streaming). Movie
10). Cell wall : only in plants. It is made of cellulose. It stops the cell from bursting.
Last edited September 2014, by David Byres, David.Byres@fscj.edu