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APA Style 7th Edition: Encyclopedias & Dictionaries

Formatting

Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

Tips

Authors/Editors

If an encyclopedia or dictionary entry does not indicate a specific author or co-authors, begin the citation with a group author such as Merriam-Webster or American Psychological Association, followed by the year of publication in round brackets.

Titles

Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title of the entry and the title of the encyclopedia or dictionary.

Capitalize the first letter of proper names in titles, such as names of places or people. Example: Canada

Publication Information for Online Encyclopedias and Dictonaries

Include the publisher name for an encyclopedia or dictionary where clearly identified, just as with a book or ebook. If the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher element.

Some electronic content is assigned a unique number called a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). If a DOI is provided for an encyclopedia or dictionary, include it after the name of the encyclopedia or dictionary of the entry and edition beginning with "https:"

You do not need to put a period after a DOI number.

If you accessed the encyclopedia or dictionary through a website, provide the url. If the encyclopedia or dictionary provides stable archived versions, link to the latest one without "retrieved from"; no statement of the retrieval date is necessary in this case. A statement of the retrieval date should be provided for any web pages that are dynamic and not archived. When in doubt, provide a retrieval date to help the reader in case the entry you use is updated between the time you read it and the time your reader looks at it.

In-Text Citation - Page Numbers

Page numbers may not be available for an online dictionary or encyclopedia entry. Here are some options if you have no page numbers and you are quoting directly:

Count the paragraphs, and use that number where you'd normally put the page number. Put the word "para." in front of it. Example: (Smith, 2012, para. 3). This example refers to the third paragraph in the entry. 

If the entry has section headings, you can use those. Encyclopedia entries often have section headings. Enter the section heading name, followed by the word "section" and then the number of the paragraph within that section. Example: (Smith, 2012, Climate section, para. 2). This example refers to the second paragraph under the Climate section of the entry.

If there is only one paragraph and no headings, as may be the case for many dictionary entries, skip the page/paragraph/section information and give the author's name and date only. Example: (Smith, 2012)

Online Encyclopedia or Dictionary from Library Database - Known Author - No DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia or dictionary (edition if given and is not first edition, volume number if there is more than one, page range). Publisher Name.

Example

Maher, J. (2010). Work and mothering. In A. O’Reilly (Ed.), Encyclopedia of motherhood (Vol. 3, pp. 1278-1283). SAGE.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Maher, 2010)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. page number or section name and paragraph number)

Example: (Maher, 2010, p. 1279)

Note: When there are no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, you may cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph in that section to identify where your quote came from.

Online Encyclopedia or Dictionary from Library Database - Known Author - With DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia or dictionary (edition if given and is not first edition). https://doi number

Example

Stonard, J. (2016). Wall, Jeff(rey). In Grove art online. https://doi.org/10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T096536

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Stonard, 2016)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. page number or section name and paragraph number)

Example: (Stonard, 2016, para. 1)

Note: When there are no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, you may cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph in that section to identify where your quote came from.

Online Encyclopedia or Dictionary from a Website - Known Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication).Title of entry. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia or dictionary (edition if given and is not first edition). Retrieved date from url

Example

Beck, J., & Foley, D. (2015). Music composition. In The Canadian encyclopedia. Retrieved January 20, 2020, from https://thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/music-composition

In-Text Paraphrase

(First Author's Last Name & Second Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Beck & Foley, 2015)

In-Text Quote

(First Author's Last Name & Second Author's Last Name, Year, p. page number or section name and paragraph number)

(Beck & Foley, 2012, para. 1)

Online Encyclopedia or Dictionary from a Web Site - Group Author

Name of Group Author. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia or dictionary (edition if given and is not first edition). Retrieved from date url

Example

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Plagiarism. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved January 18, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plagiarism

In-Text Paraphrase

(Group author, Year)

Example: (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)

In-Text Quote

(Group author, Year, p. page number or section name and paragraph number)

Example: (Merriam-Webster, n.d., The Kidnapping Roots of Plagiarize section)

Note: This entry has only section headings so only this information can be included the citation.

Wikipedia

Title of entry. (Year article was edited, Month Day). In Wikipedia. URL for archived version of the article

Note: To find and cite the latest archived version, select "view history" in the Wikipedia entry and choose the most recent date.    

Wikipedia may not be considered an acceptable source for a college or university assignment. Be sure to evaluate the content carefully and check your assignment.

Example

Veterinary medicine. (2019, December 29.). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Veterinary_medicine&oldid=931891450

In-Text Paraphrase

("Title of entry", Year)

Example: ("Veterinary Medicine," 2019)

In-Text Quote

("Title of entry", year, Section Name section, para. Paragraph Number)

Example: ("Veterinary Medicine," 2019, Paraveterinary Workers section, para. 1)

Note: You may cite the section heading and count the number of the paragraph in that section to identify where your quote came from. The title of the Wikipedia article and the Section heading are in title case (i.e. with a capital letter at the beginning of most words in the title), but only the title of the article is in quotation marks. 

Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry In Print - Known Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia or dictionary (Volume number, pp. first page of entry-last page of entry). Publisher Name often shortened.

Example

King, P.N., & Wester L. (1998). Hawaii. In The world book encyclopedia (Vol. 9, pp. 88-110). World Book.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (King & Wester, 1998)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. page number or section name and paragraph number)

(King & Wester, 1998, p. 90)

Encyclopedia or Dictionary In Print - Group Author

Name of Group Author. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia or dictionary (Volume number if any, pp. first page of entry-last page of entry or p. page number for one page entry). Publisher Name often shortened.

Example

Chambers Harrap. (2007). Crop circles. In U. McGovern (Ed.), Chambers dictionary of the unexplained (p. 27). Chambers.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Group Author, Year)

Example: (Chambers Harrap, 2007)

In-Text Quote

(Group Author, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Chambers Harrap, 2007, p. 27)