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APA Style 7th Edition: Videos & DVDs

Formatting

Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

Tips

Who to Credit - DVD or Film

Many people can be involved in the production of a film but not all need to be listed in the citation. Typically the director is the only name that is used.  If the director is unknown, give credit to someone in a similar role (producer/writer/host etc.).  Their job title (such as Director) is put after their name in round brackets to clarify what role they had in the film production.

Who to Credit - Streaming Video from a Website

For videos from websites such as YouTube or Vimeo, credit the person who posted the content. If a real name is provided, use that followed by the person's user name in square brackets. If the real name of the person who posted the content is not known, just use their user name without brackets.

Who to Credit - TV Series and TV Series Episode

When citing a whole TV series, credit the executive producer(s).  When citing a single episode from a TV series, credit the writer and the director of the episode. For both series and single episodes, include their job titles after their names in round brackets.

Streaming Video from a Website (YouTube, Vimeo, etc.) - Poster's Name Known

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. of person who posted the video if known. [User name that posted the video] . (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Website. url

Note: According to APA, for citing purposes the person who posted/uploaded the video is credited as the author.

Example

Nye, B. [TheRealBillNye]. (2009, April 8). Bill Nye the science guy on energy [Video]. YouTube. http://youtu.be/0ASLLiuejAo

In-Text Paraphrase

(Creator's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Nye, 2009)

In-Text Quote

(Creator's Last Name, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Nye, 2009, 2:12)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Streaming Video from a Website (YouTube, Vimeo, etc.) - Poster's Name Not Known

User name that posted the video. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Website. url

Note: According to APA, for citing purposes the person who posted the video is credited as the author.

Example

All Aces Media. (2012, January 19). Often awesome the series [Video]. Vimeo. http://vimeo.com/35311255

In-Text Paraphrase

(User name, Year)

Example: (All Aces Media, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(User name, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (All Aces Media, 2012, 3:17)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Streaming Movie from a Subscription Media Website or Library Collection (Netflix, Amazon Prime, Hulu, Kanopy, etc.)

Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Director). (Year of Publication). Title of Movie [Film]. Production Company. 

Note: Only specify how you watched a film (on DVD, streaming, etc.) when it is important to indicate a specific version. Put this information in in the square brackets following the word "Film" and a semicolon. If you have more than one director use (Directors) instead and separate their names with commas, adding an ampersand (&) before the final name.  If the director is unknown, credit someone in a similar role (producer/writer) and put their job title in round brackets after their name. 

Example

Gitlitz, R. (Director). (2017). The story of Diana [Film]. ABC Entertainment.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Director Last name, Year)

Example: (Gitlitz, 2017)

In-Text Quote

(Director Last name, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Gitlitz, 2017, 51:45)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

DVD with Named Producer, Director, or Writer

Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Director). (Year DVD was produced). Title of DVD [Film; optional descriptive information if DVD is a unique version]. Production Company.

Note: In general, you don't need to cite the format of a movie. However, include it if the information you are citing can be found only in that particular format or edition (e.g. special features or commentary).  

Example

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

Note: If there is more than one production company, separate their names with a semi-colon (;).

In-Text Paraphrase

(Director Last Name, Year)

Example: (Jackson, 2001)

In-Text Quote

(Director Last Name, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Jackson, 2001, 1:23:46)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Movie with Unknown Producer, Director and/or Writer

Title of movie [Film]. (Year Movie was Produced). Production Company.

Note: When the Director, Producer and/or Writer is not known, start the citation with the movie title.

Example

Era of viruses [Film]. (2006). Films for the Humanities and Sciences.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Title Of Movie, Year)

Example: (Era Of Viruses, 2006)

Note: Italicize the title of the DVD and capitalize the words for the in-text citation.

In-Text Quote

(Title Of Movie, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Era Of Viruses, 2006, 1:03:42)

Note: Italicize the title of the DVD and capitalize the words for the in-text citation.

Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Television Series Episode

Writer's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Writer), & Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Director). (Year the episode was originally aired, Month Day if known). Title of episode (Season Number, Episode Number) [TV series episode]. In Executive Producer's First Initial. Last Name (Executive Producer), Television series nameProduction Company

Note: Include the writer and director for the episode and put their job title in round brackets after their name.  If one person did both jobs use (Writer & Director).

Cite the URL for the log-in page instead of the URL for the actual movie. Omit the URL if the TV episode was viewed on cable television rather than online.

Example Oakley, B. K. (Writer), & Lynch, J. (Director). (2020, January 1). The Key (Season 6, Episode 5) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J. L. Brooks, & S. Simon (Executive Producers), Vikings. History. 
In-Text Paraphrase

(Writer & Director Last Names, Year)

Example: (Oakley & Lynch, 2020)

In-Text Quote

 (Writer & Director Last Names, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Oakley & Lynch, 2020, 17:53)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.