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Chicago/Turabian Style: Home

Need help with formatting citations? Use this brief guide to Chicago/Turabian Style.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Turabian vs. Chicago

What is the difference between Turabian and Chicago?

The main difference is that the Turabian guide is shorter and contains fewer instructions than the Chicago Manual. It also does not contain any information about publication. The Chicago Manual of Style is designed for individuals who are publishing, so it includes a great deal of information on formatting papers. Turabian is a simplified version that is designed for students writing research papers.

Which style should I use?

Always check with your instructor. However, in general, most of the guidelines that you find in the Turabian manual will also apply to the Chicago style.


Chicago Manual of Style

Chicago Manual of Style Online


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What is Chicago Style?

Chicago is a documentation syle that has been published by the Chicago University Press since 1906. This citation style incorporates rules of grammar and punctuation common in American English. Typically, Chicago style presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars.

The notes and bibliography style is preferred by many in the humanities, including those in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography.

Material Type

Notes/Bibliography Style

A book in print

Note Style:  1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

Duplicate Note:  2. Pollan, Omnivore's Dilemma, 3. 

Bibliography: Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

An article in a print journal

Note Style: 1. Joshua I. Weinstein, "The Market in Plato’sRepublic," Classical Philology 104 (2009): 440.

Duplicate Note: 2. Weinstein, "Plato’s Republic," 452–53.

Bibliography: Weinstein, Joshua I. "The Market in Plato’sRepublic." Classical Philology 104 (2009): 439–58.

An article in an electronic journal

Note Style: 1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,”American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.

Duplicate Note: Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 439.

Bibliography: Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.”American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

A website

Note Style: 1.“Google Privacy Policy,” last modified March 11, 2009,

Duplicate Note: “Google Privacy Policy.”

Bibliography: Google. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11, 2009.


The author-date style has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.


Author/Date Style

In-text Citation


A book

(Pollan 2006, 99–100)

Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.

An article in a print journal

(Weinstein 2009, 440)

Weinstein, Joshua I. 2009. “The Market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology 104:439–58.

An article in an electronic journal

(Kossinets and Watts 2009, 411)

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2009. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology115:405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

A website

(Google 2009)

Google. 2009. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11.

(Source: Official Chicago Manual website)

Online Chicago Citation Resources

Need someone to review your paper? Visit the Writing Center on your campus.

Citing Sources


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