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Cell Death by
Beginning from centuries of anecdotal descriptions of cell death, such as those on the development of the midwife toad in 1842 by Carl Vogt, to modern-day investigations of cell death as a biological discipline, it has become accepted that cell death in multicellular organisms is a normal part of life. This book provides a comprehensive view of cell death, from its mechanisms of initiation and execution, to its implication in human disease and therapy. Physiological cell death plays critical roles in almost all aspects of biology, and the book details its roles in lymphocyte homeostasis, neuronal function, metabolism, and the DNA damage response. When physiological cell death goes awry, diseases can arise, and cancer is presented as a central paradigm for the consequences of derangements in the interplay between cell survival and cell death. At the same time, the potential promise of targeted therapies aimed at interdicting cell death machineries are also discussed extensively. The molecular mechanisms that underlie apoptotic cell death are illustrated from the perspectives of both the intrinsic, mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and the extrinsic, death receptor pathway. Key players in these pathways, such as the Bcl2 family proteins, cytochrome c, Apaf-1, caspases, death receptor adapter proteins, and inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, are presented from both functional and structural angles. Until only a few years ago, programmed cell death has been considered essentially synonymous with apoptosis. However, we now know that programmed cell death can also take other forms such as necrosis or necroptosis, and to this end, the mechanisms that underlie programmed necrosis in development and host defense are illustrated. The past twenty plus years have seen an incredible growth of research in cell death, with one breakthrough after another, and the legacy still goes on with constant new surprises and findings. Long live cell death!
Publication Date: 2013-11-19
Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism by
The leading and most current text available for the capstone level undergraduate nutrition course, Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, Fourth Edition provides a sophisticated understanding of digestion, absorption and metabolism of fat, protein and carbohydrates. It covers the biochemistry of vitamins, minerals, and energy nutrients. In addition, the text examines the structure and function of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins and their regulatory role in metabolism, looks at electrolyte and fluid balance, and examines the role of nutrition in the development or exacerbation of chronic disease. This text continues to set the hallmark for this course through the authors' ability to clearly and accurately explain even the most complex metabolic processes and concepts.
Publication Date: 2004-04-16
This work offers a comprehensive overview of the chemistry and physiology of nutrition to students majoring in the general areas of nutrition, food science, exercise, and the premedical fields. This textbook includes refresher chapters on basic principles of inorganic and organic chemistry, biochemistry, and thermodynamic principles relating to nutrition. Topics addressed include: how nutrients are utilized at the cellular and organ system level, the role of nutrients in metabolism, and the role of vitamins and minerals in enzyme activity.
Publication Date: 1998-12-08
Metabolic Processes and Energy Transfers by
Includes twenty-one articles that deal with the evolution of metabolic pathways, metabolic disorders, ecosystems, and global warming.
Publication Date: 2005-08-01
Integration of Metabolism, Energetics, and Signal Transduction by
Complex and unexplained phenomena tend to foster unorthodox perspectives. This publication is an example, as is a prior publication that emphasized the concept that intermediary metabolism might play a significant and determining role in hepatocyte proliferation and 1 tumorigenesis. Formulation of this hypothesis was based on an attempt to clarify several poorly understood phenomena; including the observations: 1) that xenobiotic peroxisome proliferators such as the fibrate hypolipidemic agents induce hepatocyte proliferation and carcinogenesis in rodents; 2) that benign and malignant liver tumors complicate the human syndrome of glycogen storage disease type I (glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency); and 3) that in this same syndrome, administration of glucose exerts an anti-tumor effect. Fatty acid and glucose metabolism are tightly linked in a we- established and profoundly inportant interplay. This connection, together with the fact that peroxisome proliferator-induced hepatocyte proliferation and carcinogenesis reflects inhibition of mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I and fatty acid oxidation, suggested the possibility that regulation of fatty acid metabolism could prove to be a pivotal determinant in the control of cell growth. In 1993, the year in which the paper cited above was published, insight into the importance of growth factors and signal transduction pathways in cell cycle regulation was increasing rapidly, but metabolic and energetic aspects of cell proliferation had attracted relatively little attention. Despite this, the concept seemed inescapable that the two seemingly distinct and unrelated determinants signal transduction and metabolism were integrally linked."
Publication Date: 2004-04-15
Metabolome Analyses by
Metabolome analysis is now recognized as a crucial component of functional genomic and systems biology investigations. Innovative approaches to the study of metabolic regulation in microbial, plant and animal systems are increasingly facilitating the emergence of systems approaches in biology. This book highlights analytical and bioinformatics strategies now available for investigating metabolic networks in microbial, plant and animal systems. The contributing authors are world leaders in this field and they present an unambiguous case for pursuing metabolome analysis as a means to attain a systems level understanding of complex biological systems.
Publication Date: 2005-04-28
Eat Right for Your Metabolism by
Kliment's program includes an explanation of the three metabolism types-the carnivore, the omnivore, and the herbivore-and what foods are best for each kind. Eat Right for Your Metabolism offers a seven-day meal plan for each of the three types of metabolisms introduced that will help readers lose weight and regain their health Kliment's The Acid Alkaline Balance Diet has sold more than 33,000 copies A valuable resource for the millions of people with poor digestion or who struggle with weight problems, as well as those who want to combat thyroid disease, arthritis, gynecological problems, liver disease, and other conditions naturally
Publication Date: 2006-05-01
All living organisms need energy to perform day-to-day tasks. Using straightforward, vibrant animation to anchor otherwise complex ideas, this program shows how that energy is created through the metabolic processes of catabolism, aerobic cellular respiration, and anabolism. Respiration is covered in depth, with detailed explanations of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. Also covered is fermentation and anaerobic cellular respiration, and how cells help build large, complex molecules through the process of anabolism. A part of the series Cell Biology: Structure, Function, and Processes. (22 minutes)
Item Number: 55130
Date Added: 04/18/2014
Metabolism - all of the chemical reactions in an organism.
Metabolic rate varies between different species: temperature and size are the main factors.
Catabolism - breaking down large molecules to small molecules ( usually releases energy ).
Anabolism - building up large molecules from small ones (usually requires energy).
Types of energy : chemical ( eg. in food )
electrical ( nerves )
kinetic ( energy of movement )
ATP ( Adenosine Tri Phosphate ) : stores chemical energy. It has three phosphate groups attached to adenine and ribose (the same sugar as in RNA). ATP is mainly produced in mitochondria.
First Law of Thermodynamics : energy can be changed from one form to another, it cannot be destroyed or created.
Second Law of Thermodynamics : entropy ( disorder ) is always increasing. So things fall apart and break down, because the general trend is towards disorder. Second law
In living things, chemical energy ( ATP ) is used for :
1) Mechanical work eg muscles
2) Chemical work eg anabolism
3) Active transport eg sodium/potassium pump
Enzymes control chemical reactions in the cell. Enzymes are proteins. They act as catalysts (speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy).
Enzymes are specific ( each affects a particular substrate ). They have an active site that the substrate molecule fits. Enzymes work very rapidly (up to 100,000 chemical reactions per minute) so are only needed in tiny quantities.
The speed of enzymes can be affected by :
- Environmental conditions ( temp, pH ).
Human enzymes work best at about 37o C ( body temp). Above about 40o C enzymes become denatured. Cold temperatures slow enzymes. Siberian surgery : by cooling down a patient's body, surgeons can do heart surgery without a heart/lung machine.
Most human enzymes work best close to pH 7 (for example trypsin in the intestines works best around pH 8). There are a few exceptions: pepsin in the stomach works best around pH 2. Generally, however, acids act as preservatives, as they slow or stop enzymes. Bog bodies
- Coenzymes ( vitamins ).
Vitamins are needed in very small amounts. Large amounts of vitamins can actually be toxic: Vitamin A toxicity. Vitamin E supplements may increase death risk. New Scientist
Recently folate (folic acid) was added to flour and other basic foods, because it was the only vitamin that people generally were deficient in. During pregnancy, a folate deficiency increases the risk of birth defects.
Some vitamins are antioxidants, that protect cells from damage. Drinks like coffee also contain antioxidants. Antioxidants
The law on marketing vitamins and other nutritional supplements is very lax: companies do not have to prove the supplements are effective, or even safe. Supplements
Last edited September 2014, by David Byres, David.Byres@fscj.edu
- Inhibitors ( toxins ) : Competitive and non-competitive inhibitors.
Competitive inhibitors attach to the active site of the enzyme.
Non-competitive inhibitors attach away from the active site.
Commercially, enzyme inhibitors are important in pesticides, and some medications, such as HIV drugs and aspirin, are inhibitors.